The incorrect use of dashes is one thing that most copyeditors correct in almost any writer’s work. I’m here to clear up the confusion and teach you some simple keyboard shortcuts to make beautiful dashes that aren’t just a pair of hyphens masquerading as the real thing.
Em dashes (—) are the width of a lowercase “m.” They are used to indicate added emphasis, a pause, or a change of thought.
Em dashes are the “wait for it” of punctuation, creating a pause that’s conversational in tone, but still draws your eye to the next sentence or phrase.
Em dashes can have the same effect as a colon, but with more of an artistic spin, and less of an abrupt stop. (They’re also used when attributing a quote.)
- Example: “I’ve been looking for a girl like you—not you, but a girl like you.” —Groucho Marx
Em dashes can also be used instead of commas when the writer wants to set a section of the sentence apart.
- Example: “Everything I saw in the park that day—the playful squirrels, the green grass, the circus jugglers—reminded me of him.”
En dashes (–) are the width of a lowercase “n.” They express a range, and are typically used between dates, data sets, names, etc.
A good rule of thumb is that if you can say “to” in the space that the en dash is taking up, it makes sense. (Note: in running copy like in the second example below, most editors prefer to write out the “to.”)
- Example: 1995–1998
- Example: Men ages 70–90 are more likely to make inappropriate jokes about women in front of your girlfriend.
- Example: The Denver–Brisbane flight was not a pleasant one: why do I always get seated next to the screaming baby?
To Space, or Not to Space
Every style guide except the AP’s (silly Associated Press) states that there should be no spaces around em dashes, but many writers prefer to use spaces anyway. Ultimately it’s up to you (and your style guide of choice), but my personal preference is not to use spaces.
- Example: “The soup—with its excessive use of cinnamon and ginger—tasted like a gingerbread man gone bad.”
En dashes are also used without flanking spaces.
- Example: February–May
ALT/OPTION + HYPHEN = en dash (–)
ALT/OPTION + SHIFT + HYPHEN = em dash (—)
In Microsoft Word, if you type a word followed by two hyphens, add another word and hit the spacebar, it should automatically reformat into an em dash.
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Do you use dashes in your writing? Do you love them or loathe them? Tell me in the comments!
P.S. When in doubt, remember Frida.